Posts Tagged ‘police recruitment’

It costs a lot of money to train a recruit to become a police officer, so where savings can be made they are.  Whilst it isn’t essential that a person holds a full driving licence to be eligible to join the police, it is, however, an advantage to hold one, as it may be one of the criteria used to sift out applicants when there has been a large response to a recruitment campaign.

A student police officer who doesn’t hold a driving licence is not an effective unit.  They can only be deployed on foot patrols or office/admin duties unless they accompany an officer who can drive or are chauffeured about.

Their opportunities to experience a wide range of incidents are also limited by being a non-driver.  Therefore, they may be less competent than their driving peers.

Those recruits that do hold a full driving licence may (subject to a force’s policies) be able to drive a police vehicle more or less, from day one of their service.  Upon either completing a course or passing a test, they may become a “Response” officer, meaning that they can drive at speed with blue lights flashing and siren sounding.  Without being an approved response driver, they will not be permitted to drive to an emergency incident at speed.

Depending on the size of a police force and their policies, there may be further driving courses for an officer to attend and pass.  These may include van, surveillance, traffic and motorway driving as well as motorcycle riding courses.  Each one requires the officer to either pass a test or successfully complete a course for that type of vehicle or role.

Some forces have their own driving schools, staffed by police officers, civilian staff or a mixture of both.  Smaller forces may send their officers to another force driving school/training unit.

Only a few forces in the country have the capability to deliver “T-PAC” training, which is Tactical Pursuit And Containment driving that teaches officers how to safely bring a pursuit to a successful conclusion by eventually boxing a vehicle in so that it cannot continue to be driven.

As things currently stand, a police officer can be prosecuted for the manner of their driving, even when trying to uphold the law.

The Home Office under Sajid Javid, plans to change the law so that highly trained police drivers are allowed to pursue suspects,  whether in or on a vehicle, without fear of being prosecuted for driving contrary to the standard expected of everyday drivers. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/may/02/sajid-javid-proposes-legal-protection-for-police-who-crash-cars

What police officers do you have in your stories?  Are they required to be trained drivers and if so, at what level?  Does their ability or lack of it to drive at certain level create problems or conflict in your story?

Is your SIO off duty and too drunk to drive so needs picking up and taking to a crime scene but the only officer available to assist happens to be a non-driver?  How will your SIO react?

For more insight into police driving standards, methods and experiences, the following TV documentaries are worth watching-

Motorway Cops (BBC1)

Police Interceptors (Channel 5)

Sky Cops (BBC1)

Traffic Cops (BBC1)

Don’t forget to get your very own copy of the following guides, if you haven’t already, by clicking on the images below and watch out for the release of the forthcoming Writer’s Guide to UK Police Custody and Cell Procedures.

A Writer's Guide to Senior Investigating Police Officers in the UK by [Robinson, Kevin N.]218 Fact Cover

BPCD 2016 Cover on Amazon

 

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BPCD CoverThe most comprehensive directory of its kind, the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers is the police adviser on your tablet/computer/phone.  It is an easy-to-use launch pad for learning more about the police, policing methods and crime investigation.

To view a sample of the book or to download it, click on the book’s cover to the left.

To learn more about its content, read on.

The five parts of the book look at:

  • How to make contact with a particular UK police force, agency or associated government department.
  • What information can be provided to the writer/researcher, how and by whom?
  • Where to locate (free of charge) some of the very same practice guides the police use to investigate serious and serial crime as well as over 200 other manuals and documents that examine and describe how the police should work in the following categories:
    • Recruitment and Training
    • Crime and Investigation
    • Custody and Detention Matters
    • Firearms and Public Order Policing
    • Forensics
    • Incidents and the Police National Computer and Database
    • Intelligence Matters
    • Interviewing
    • Legislation
    • Missing Persons and Children
    • Other Law Enforcement Agencies
    • Overseas Matters
    • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Publications about the Police
  • Which 100 websites every writer and researcher should know about?
  • Where to find 37 authentic video clips describing ways in which the police really work, including following a murder investigation from start to finish and finally
  • Which 58 books about the police, policing, crime and writing crime fiction may the writer and researcher find useful?

In a nutshell, you’ll be able to learn about how to become a police BPCD Coverofficer: what the application process consists of: what the role entails: what training courses officers can undertake: what technology is available to aid investigations: how an arrest is carried out along with what powers the police have: the procedures they should follow and how they should conduct their investigations and interviews.

You will find who within a police force or associated agency can help you: how you can legally obtain information from them: explanations of some of the terminology used:  You can also discover how public order and firearms incidents should be policed as well as how missing persons’ investigations should be conducted.

The book will prove indispensable to those wishing to bring authenticity and realism to their writing to create a convincing, believable story.

With the aid of this comprehensive directory, your readers will not be questioning your facts or research methods but will focus on the heart of the matter – “whodunnit”?

Want to see a sample or download your very own copy of this unique book, just click on the book cover to the right.

 

You read the other week about the Bobby Tax in London, now we have the Welsh Police Apprentices but what are they?

Skills for Justice, in partnership with the College of Policing, Association of Chief Police Officers, Welsh and UK Government departments and four Welsh police forces developed a Level 3 Apprenticeship in Home Office Policing for newly recruited Police Constables.  The qualification is also known as  ‘The Bridge.’

Skills for Justice

   The initiative is embedded within the pre-existing Initial Police Learning   Development Programme (IPLDP) that all new officers undergo.  It includes supervised and independent patrol and the apprentices have warranted powers, in line with any other newly recruited PC.

The Bridge includes work-based mentoring and classroom work towards Essential Skills Wales (ESW) qualifications and study towards employee rights and responsibilities.  The apprentices complete ESW qualifications in communications at Level 3, Information and Communication Technology at Level 2 and application of numbers at Level 2.

Justine Burgess, Programme Lead at Skills for Justice, said: “These qualifications recognise that the apprentices have the skills needed to help them perform competently and effectively in their roles as police officers in today’s society.”

Eighty-four new police officers from across Wales have now completed their initial training under the apprenticeship programme. There are 16 officers from Dyfed-Powys Police, 44 officers from South Wales Police and a further 24 officers from Gwent Police.

There are currently 231 apprentices enrolled on the programme across Wales and they are due to complete their apprenticeships between 2014 and 2015.

The big question is how on earth will this affect us, policing and the public at large?  Well now you/we will know that in Wales at least, cops know how to write, spell and count.  Believe it or not, this has been a problem in the service over at least the last ten years especially since text speak became the norm for many youngsters.

Cases have even been lost because of these basic incompetencies.

Don’t forget your copy of Writers, Researchers and the Police at an introductory price to the first 50 purchasers. For more information follow the image belowWriters, Researchers and the Police 2014 Cover

There are often reports in the media of police officers not maintaining the standards expected of them by both the public and the Police’s own Code of Conduct.  In the main, these are lower ranking officers from Constable up to Inspector ranks.  Their failings can centre around theft, assault, drug use and supply, perjury and a variety of road traffic offences.

To deal with such individuals, each force had units that investigated such officers.  The units were called Discipline and Complaints or Complaints and Discipline Departments or other derivatives of those words.  These have been replaced by the standardised term of Professional Standards Departments (PSD).  They tend to investigate or supervise investigations into complaints against the police, generally made by members of the public.  They can also investigate officers whom they suspect may be involved in any form of corruption or organise crime (regardless of whether or not a complaint about that officer has been received).  Some forces have now built Anti-Corruption Units to deal solely with this aspect, leaving the more “minor” matters to PSD or even local senior or middle ranking officers to deal with.

However, over recent years there seem to have been more and more police officers above the rank of Chief Superintendant dismissed and/or prosecuted for being involved in corrupt activities such as fraud and perjury.

A glance at the news relating to Chief Constables, Assistant Chief Constables and Commanders of the Metropolitan Police Service, West Yorkshire, North Yorkshire and Cleveland Police will provide a few examples worthy of the crime fiction writer exploring.

What if your protagonist became aware of or embroiled with a senior chief officer of your chosen police force?  How could they have come across them?  Were they on the periphery of “unlinked” crime investigations such as organised drug or people trafficking or a paedophile ring?  Were they found to be “associating” with undesirable persons/suspects? What brought them to this place; did they feel owed, invincible, above the law or just downright cleverer than their staff?  Had they become indebted to the wrong type of person and that debt had been recalled?

How would their relationship develop?  Would the hero find themselves bullied and ostracised or the victim of some “random” attack?  Would the protagonist gain the support of colleagues or specialist investigators or will they have to seek help outside either the force or outside the police organisation all together?

What would the outcome be?  Who would survive to fight another day and who would profit or gain in the end? What would the role of the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) be or would they somehow become implicit?

As a matter of historical fact, the IPCC reveal that between their inception in 2004 and 30/6/2010, they have received 55 complaints against senior chief officers.  Follow this link for more information.

See the following media reports for more ideas and information –

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2011/aug/04/police-corruption-inquiry-sean-price

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/206221.stm

http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/dec/20/trafficking-victims-forced-crime-let-down-police?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487

http://www.nypa.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=6670

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-16979424

http://www.hmic.gov.uk/media/west-yorkshire-revisiting-police-relationships.pdf

Don’t forget to get your copy of Writers, Researchers and the Police for an introductory price to the first 50 purchasers. For more information follow the image below

Writers, Researchers and the Police 2014 Cover

Following the success of the Spring Crime Fiction – Making it Real weekend workshop, the Autumn workshop is now open for booking.

It will help writers of any genre bring their stories to life as they find out how real police investigations work and delegates will pick up hundreds of ideas for their next stories.

The workshop will run from 17th to 18th November 2012 (inclusive) at the Premier Inn, Glasshoughton, Castleford, West Yorkshire.

   

What the weekend is about!

The following are some (but not all) of the topics that time and delegate requirements permitting may be covered over the weekend –

  • The history and the future of the police.
  • How is a police force organised and structured?
  • What does policing look like across the U.K, internationally and who is involved?
  • What are the terms and conditions that an officer must work to and how are they trained?
  • What work do the police focus upon, how and why?
  • What are the main crime types and what do they mean?
  • What are some of the more serious offences investigated by the police and how?
  • How is information turned into intelligence and how is that used?
  • What types of profiling are there and how are they used?
  • What types of offenders are there and what makes them tick?
  • How is a crime scene analysed?
  • What forensic techniques are used and why?
  • What are the rules regarding arresting, detaining, interviewing and charging an offender?

Time will be allowed for delegates’ specific questions and to explore how their plots and characters may be developed or made more realistic.

The exact content of the course will be tailored to meet the needs of the delegates.

There will also be several handouts as well as post workshop support and guidance available to all attendees, which will include over 100 police advice and guidance documents.

Some of the feedback from the delegates on that Spring workshop includes

Barbara  – Just wanted to say how much I enjoyed the course.

I wanted a general overview of the police and procedures which I think you covered very well. Even if you don’t use a lot of it in the writing, it is useful background to get an idea of how a whole police station would operate. The stuff on the Major incident teams and crime scenes etc was very useful. I guess writers are also interested in dialogue so discussing interviews etc was also helpful.  I also found the stuff on who certifies death, the role of the coroner etc helpful.  The stuff on serious criminal, like rapists was very good as was the discussion of forensic profilers.  Just skimmed through the CD and it will be an excellent resource for us.

We were quite a demanding audience and you handled the questions very well. I really did enjoy it. A big part as well is the other attendees and I got a lot out of talking to the others in break times.

Caroline  – Thanks for a terrific course and for your individual attention with my plot, really appreciated. A great weekend and I am now energised and armed to complete the book hopefully with my cop facts right.

CJ – I wanted to thank you for a very stimulating and informative weekend. I learnt a lot and especially valued having my specific questions all dealt with. Overall, it was a fun weekend and a great experience and I will recommend it to other crime writers.  I could tell you put a lot into organising everything for us and it paid off big time.

Gareth – I’d like to thanks you so much for an amazing weekend.  I felt so fortunate to meet you and so many wonderful people.  The course was very informative.  The main strength of the course was you.  You were clearly knowledgeable and presented the information in a friendly, easy to understand way, but, above all, your great sense of humour made it so much fun.

Ian – It was a great course thanks,

Jan – It was brilliant.  I’ve done over 20 OU courses and about 13 summer schools – and this has to be up there with the best of them.  I really enjoyed the whole thing.

It was exactly what I needed to convince myself that non-police personnel stand a chance of writing crime – both from the point of view of the information received (and thank you so much for the DVD, it’s excellent) and from being able to meet with published authors and non-published authors in a friendly and supportive atmosphere.  I thought it did exactly what it said on the tin – it explained the structure and routines and left me in a much better position to track down my own information, and to know what level of information I need to include.

It was obvious so much thought had gone into the whole weekend.  I also felt the tone was exactly right.  Serious subjects, but tackled in an intelligent and light-hearted way, which was just the right balance for me.  I’d be back like a shot for further courses

Linda  – Just a quick line to say how much I enjoyed and appreciated this weekend. I think you covered every question I thought I might ask and covered a good many I didn’t even know I needed to ask! You surpassed all my expectations of what might be got out of the sessions, and I think I will be referring back to the information on the DVD for a long time to come.

Lesley – Firstly thanks for the workshop, you obviously did a lot of hard work to produce it.  I thoroughly enjoyed the weekend. I got a lot from it and learnt things I didn’t know. In fact I have created a new main character for my next book from those who are co-opted onto the enquiry (more later). T he DVD of information is an excellent resource.  Weekends like this are as much about talking to other people during the breaks and in the evening as about the workshop itself and we had plenty of time for that.

Maggie – You often don’t realise what you want to know until you know it and it provokes further questioning! I was open to consuming new knowledge that I could utilise along the way within my writing. I think I gained a new perspective through the course.  At the time I felt that being informed about the different uniforms was not necessary – in hindsight I feel that it was totally in context with the rest of the content once I had done the two days. It helps that you can take notes of thought provoking ideas rather than have to scribble everything that is said down and miss the overall aim/ambience.  During the course it was thought provoking and I am sure many of us have come away with some ideas for plot lines.  All in all I would definitely recommend this course to anyone considering it. Meeting the variety of people that were there was also interesting, some of us will definitely stay in touch and thus we are able to widen our network of contacts/writers/new friends.  10/10!

Paul – I enjoyed the weekend immensely and it was tremendous value for money. The extensive CD alone was worth the workshop fee and it contains everything the crime writer could wish for.  I think you provided a very good ‘walk through’ of what actual happens at the scene of a major crime and the different roles etc.  In conclusion it was an excellent experience

Sheila – I got loads from the course.  Lots of little gems will stay in my mind for further use.  I love anecdotes from people’s working lives, details that you will never get from a manual such as the spitting prisoner in a cage in a van.  The role play on tracing a wanted bod taught me how to think investigation.

Tom – I found the weekend most useful and the content and materials we subsequently received will prove valuable reference sources for crime writing. I got all the factual material I needed – and more. In fact I would suggest you were over-generous in how much info you released.

Wanda – I just want to say how much I enjoyed the weekend, and I certainly learnt a great deal. I am also delighted with the CD. You have been very generous with your knowledge, time and information and I am sure that I will now have a much better idea on how to proceed with my crime novel.

The Costs and Stuff

The cost of the weekend is £160.  Lunch and refreshments each day are included in the price.

Places are limited to ensure each delegate has plenty of individual support.  So to secure your place on the workshop by paying a £50 deposit a.s.a.p.

A number of double rooms are available at the hotel at a promotional rate of £58 for Friday and £63 for Saturday night.

The venue is located adjacent to one of the country’s top tourist attractions – Xscape and Junction 32 Factory Outlet just off the M62 motorway.

English: Xscape in Castleford, West Yorkshire

English: Xscape in Castleford, West Yorkshire (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Please feel free to pass information of this workshop to friends and colleagues and if you have any questions, please just get in touch – the.writer@hotmail.co.uk

BREAKING NEWS

Secure your place NOW on the November 2012 Crime Fiction – Making it Real, weekend workshop designed for writers interested in learning more about the police, their procedures and practices.  There will be time to immerse yourselves in case studies and to bring along your very own questions to be answered.  Check out the Autumn 2012 Workshop page for more details.

For more information, contact me via e-mail at  –

the.writer@hotmail.co.uk

It seemed a long time coming but when it did finally arrive, it flew.

From a personal point of view, the weekend far exceeded my expectations.  To top it all, I met a great bunch of people who were attentive, keen to learn and better still, keen to share their knowledge and help their peers.

What I’m talking about is the very first Crime Fiction – Making it Real weekend workshop, held at the West Yorkshire Police Training and Development Centre.

Delegates came to Wakefield from as far away as Avon and Somerset, Devon, Essex, the big city – London and Northumbria as well as places closer to the venue.

But don’t take my word for how good it was, read some of the feedback received –

Barbara  – Just wanted to say how much I enjoyed the course.

I wanted a general overview of the police and procedures which I think you covered very well. Even if you don’t use a lot of it in the writing, it is useful background to get an idea of how a whole police station would operate. The stuff on the Major incident teams and crime scenes etc was very useful. I guess writers are also interested in dialogue so discussing interviews etc was also helpful.  I also found the stuff on who certifies death, the role of the coroner etc helpful.  The stuff on serious criminal, like rapists was very good as was the discussion of forensic profilers.  t skimmed through the CD and it will be an excellent resource for us.

We were quite a demanding audience and you handled the questions very well. I really did enjoy it. A big part as well is the other attendees and I got a lot out of talking to the others in break times.

Caroline  – Thanks for a terrific course and for your individual attention with my plot, really appreciated. A great weekend and I am now energised and armed to complete the book hopefully with my cop facts right.

CJ – I wanted to thank you for a very stimulating and informative weekend. I learnt a lot and especially valued having my specific questions all dealt with. Overall, it was a fun weekend and a great experience and I will recommend it to other crime writers.  I could tell you put a lot into organising everything for us and it paid off big time.

Gareth – I’d like to thanks you so much for an amazing weekend.  I felt so fortunate to meet you and so many wonderful people.  The course was very informative.  The main strength of the course was you.  You were clearly knowledgeable and presented the information in a friendly, easy to understand way, but, above all, your great sense of humour made it so much fun.

Ian – It was a great course thanks,

Jan – It was brilliant.  I’ve done over 20 OU courses and about 13 summer schools – and this has to be up there with the best of them.  I really enjoyed the whole thing.

It was exactly what I needed to convince myself that non-police personnel stand a chance of writing crime – both from the point of view of the information received (and thank you so much for the DVD, it’s excellent) and from being able to meet with published authors and non-published authors in a friendly and supportive atmosphere.  I thought it did exactly what it said on the tin – it explained the structure and routines and left me in a much better position to track down my own information, and to know what level of information I need to include.

It was obvious so much thought had gone into the whole weekend.  I also felt the tone was exactly right.  Serious subjects, but tackled in an intelligent and light-hearted way, which was just the right balance for me.  I’d be back like a shot for further courses

Linda  – Just a quick line to say how much I enjoyed and appreciated this weekend. I think you covered every question I thought I might ask and covered a good many I didn’t even know I needed to ask! You surpassed all my expectations of what might be got out of the sessions, and I think I will be referring back to the information on the DVD for a long time to come.

Lesley – Firstly thanks for the workshop, you obviously did a lot of hard work to produce it.  I thoroughly enjoyed the weekend. I got a lot from it and learnt things I didn’t know. In fact I have created a new main character for my next book from those who are co-opted onto the enquiry (more later). T he DVD of information is an excellent resource.  Weekends like this are as much about talking to other people during the breaks and in the evening as about the workshop itself and we had plenty of time for that.

Maggie – You often don’t realise what you want to know until you know it and it provokes further questioning! I was open to consuming new knowledge that I could utilise along the way within my writing. I think I gained a new perspective through the course.  At the time I felt that being informed about the different uniforms was not necessary – in hindsight I feel that it was totally in context with the rest of the content once I had done the two days. It helps that you can take notes of thought provoking ideas rather than have to scribble everything that is said down and miss the overall aim/ambience.  During the course it was thought provoking and I am sure many of us have come away with some ideas for plot lines.  All in all I would definitely recommend this course to anyone considering it. Meeting the variety of people that were there was also interesting, some of us will definitely stay in touch and thus we are able to widen our network of contacts/writers/new friends.  10/10!

Paul – I enjoyed the weekend immensely and it was tremendous value for money. The extensive CD alone was worth the workshop fee and it contains everything the crime writer could wish for.  I think you provided a very good ‘walk through’ of what actual happens at the scene of a major crime and the different roles etc.  In conclusion it was an excellent experience

Sheila – I got loads from the course.  Lots of little gems will stay in my mind for further use.  I love anecdotes from people’s working lives, details that you will never get from a manual such as the spitting prisoner in a cage in a van.  The role play on tracing a wanted bod taught me how to think investigation.

Tom – I found the weekend most useful and the content and materials we subsequently received will prove valuable reference sources for crime writing. I got all the factual material I needed – and more. In fact I would suggest you were over-generous in how much info you released.

Wanda – I just want to say how much I enjoyed the weekend, and I certainly learnt a great deal. I am also delighted with the CD. You have been very generous with your knowledge, time and information and I am sure that I will now have a much better idea on how to proceed with my crime novel.

Anyone interested in signing up for the second workshop, drop me a line at the.writer@hotmail.co.uk

For those of you not sure of what you missed, take a look at the original post for the Crime Fiction – Making it Real workshop.

National Policing Improvement Agency

Image via Wikipedia

Many, many years ago there was no standardised approach to the training of police officer recruits.  The shortcomings of such became more evident when there was a greater need for officers to be able to work in other force areas.  A constable in an English or Welsh force has the authority to use any of their powers throughout England and Wales at anytime of day or night; on duty or off-duty.

 

There have been many reviews of police training and in the early 2000s it was decided to introduce a new standardised training programme called the Initial Police Learning and Development Programme (IPLDP).  The outline of the programme was devised and owned by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) but the content was written and owned by the individual police forces.  As a consequence, whilst there is a national programme, not all of it is mandatory and not all of it is designed and delivered to the same standard.   This means that officers in London, may actually receive different training or emphasis on training than some of their colleagues in other parts of the country.  Hence, some criminals that are prepared to travel across county boundaries are likely to come across inconsistencies in the way the police enforce certain laws.

 

In the 1980s, one Chief Constable declared that in his county there was no problem with illegal drugs whilst his peers were suffering considerably through the availability of them.

 

When asked how he had managed to suppress their existence in his county he stated that he had no idea.  His underlings knew all to well, it was because he had disbanded the force drug squad and chosen not to focus any of his resources on illegal drugs. Hence, there was no intelligence gathering so no idea as to what was out there and no enforcement to prosecute those responsible.  Thankfully, he retired many years ago.

 

To compound matters further, in line with government policies, most forces award their new officers with some kind of qualification in recognition of the work they have undertaken to learn how to do the job.  The level of this qualification has varied across the country with some officers gaining National Vocational Qualifications at Level 3 or 4, others being awarded foundation or full degrees.

 

This is about to change in the future once there has been widespread agreement at the Association of Chief Police Officer (ACPO) level as to what are the minimum requirements of any initial training course for recruits to the service.  This is in itself compounded as each force adopts various entry routes into the job.  In some forces, candidates for recruitment have to have gained a qualification first of all before they can even apply to join the police.  In other areas, potential recruits must have served as a Special Constable for at least 2 years.  Thankfully in most areas, theer has been a freeze on recruitment due to budget cuts.  This was anticipated to last for around 4 years – enough time to develop and implement a standardised approach.  However, some forces have actually started to recruit officers once again and so have had to go down their own programme route.

 

Even though one cop may well look just like any other across the country, they may not have been taught the same things or trained to the same level.  It may even be their first day on the streets, fresh out of the training school.

 

A British police officer using his notebook wh...

Image via Wikipedia

There is a commonly used phrase of British Policing.
What people tend not to realise is that there is no such thing.  In truth, England and Wales have particular rules and procedures that differ from those of Scotland and Northern Ireland.  I would suspect that most people are generally referring to the English and Welsh variety of policing, which is again subject to misunderstanding.  England and Wales is actually made up of 43 different police forces that tend to reflect county boundaries.
Scotland is itself made up of 8 individual forces, which have in recent times come to the conclusion that they would function better as one National force and may one day move towards this.  Such an idea in the rest of the mainland has been fiercely rejected.
For the benefit of this blog I will in the main concentrate on generalisations about the English and Welsh forces but you must appreciate that each force will have its differences in some areas compared to the other 42 forces.  However, there are some things that are standard across the countries.  Some of these similarities will include recruitment, training, pay and conditions and I will discuss some of these in my future blogs.