Posts Tagged ‘Police Investigation’

Do you find that not many stories or TV dramas spend much time in police cells?  Suspects simply tend to be arrested and interviewed before being released, appearing in court or going to prison.

Believe it or not, there is a whole lot more going on inside those police cells and therefore scope for a lot more to happen in your stories.  You could create or increase conflict between characters; sow information; provide back-story; add twists or simply complicate matters even more.A Writer's Guide to Police Cells and Custody Procedures in the UK by [Robinson, Kevin N.]

To help you learn about police cells, procedures and to lend your stories an air of authenticity that can only come from greater detail and inside knowledge, I have just released A Writer’s Guide to Police Cells and Custody Procedures in the UK.

Inside you will find chapters describing what a custody suite is, what it contains, along with who works and visits there.

You will also find out what happens to suspects as they enter custody, throughout their time in detention and how they are subsequently dealt with.

Within the 134 pages, there are at least 19 ideas of how you could use some of the information provided, along with links to 32 other resources freely available via the internet.

To get you copy, simply click on the above book cover-

If you’re still unsure, just have a look at the extensive Table of Contents to see just how much is covered and the amount of detail that is provided.

 

Chapter One: 1. What Are Police Cells and Custody Suites?
Police Custody Suites
Home Office Approval
HMICFSR Inspections
Description of a Custody Suite Interior
Holding Area
CCTV/Microphones
Custody Desk/Counter
Biometric Rooms
Fingerprint Room
Photograph Room
DNA Sample Room
Breathalyser Room
Emergency Strips
Types of Cell
Forensic Search Cell
Report Writing Room
Consultation Room
Interview Rooms
Interview Monitoring Room
Medical Room
Food Store
Kitchen
Prisoner’s Lockers
General Storeroom
Bedding
Prisoner Clothing
Cleaning Equipment
Stationary
Staff Rest Room

Chapter Two: What Staff Work in a Custody Suite?
Staff in General
Custody Chief Inspector
Custody Inspector
Custody Sergeant
Detention Officers
Matron
Cleaners
Contracted Staff

Chapter Three: What is the Booking in Process?
Arrival at the Custody Suite
On Arrest
Necessity Test
Prior Arrangement
Answering Bail
Wanted on Warrant
S136 Mental Health Act
Police Protection Order
Prison Production
Reason for Arrest
Violent Prisoners
Fit to Detain
Personal Details Recorded
Rights Given and Explained
Searched
Intimate Searches Conducted
Seizure of Property
Custody Record
Biometrics and DNA

Chapter Four: What Happens During Police Detention?
Placed in Cell
Types of Observation Carried Out
Medical Examination
Evidential Samples Taken
Enquiries Carried Out
Fit to Interview
Legal Consultation
Interviewed
Reports Written
Linked to Police IT Systems
Ability to Listen to Interviews
Meals and Drinks
Pace Clock
Custody Reviews
Identification (ID) Parade
Detainee Complaints
Deaths in Custody
Contingency Planning and Evacuations

Chapter Five: Who else may be Present in a Custody Suite?
Legal Adviser
Police Staff
Health Care Professionals
Social Worker
Referral Scheme Workers
Appropriate Adult
Interpreter
Prisoner Transport Staff
Independent Custody Visitors
Builders/Maintenance Staff
Other Enforcement Officers

Chapter Six: What is the Release Process from Custody?
When to Release?
Fit to be Released?
Return of Property/Clothing
Disposal Method
Transferred into the Custody of Others
Refused Charge
No Further Action
Final Warning/Reprimand
Caution
Bailed to a Police Station
Charged and Bailed
Charged and Remanded in Custody

Chapter Seven: Useful Resources
Websites of Use
Useful Books and Documents
Useful TV Programmes

Don’t forget to get your very own copy of the following guides, if you haven’t already, by clicking on the images below –

A Writer's Guide to Senior Investigating Police Officers in the UK by [Robinson, Kevin N.]218 Fact Cover

BPCD 2016 Cover on Amazon

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Once in a while, a TV drama comes along that grips the nation.  It may have been Happy Valley, Luther, Endeavour or The Bodyguard.  The latest riveting watch just so happens to be the 5th series of The Line of Duty.

Are you one of 8 million viewers recently transfixed?  How do you feel about it?  Did it grip you and drag you reluctantly along from one Sunday to the next Sunday?   How did you find the depiction of the police and their procedures?

The newspapers haven’t been slow in revealing what currently serving and retired police officers thought about the latest series.
The following had this to say to the Guardian:

I only ever watched one episode of Line of Duty and thought it so far-fetched I could not stand any more. My wife hated me constantly pointing out inconsistencies and banned me from watching any police dramas.
Peter Fahy, former Chief Constable of Greater Manchester Police 

I have no clue who H is, but it can’t be Ted. He’s the sort of boss we’d all like to have – before he dropped himself in it. He’s supportive, wants to get the job done and is not afraid to get his hands dirty. But then there is this sort of dodgy business dealing that he’s been involved with. It’s a bit worrying, but I hope to see him emerge squeaky clean.
Chris Hobbs, former officer in the Met 

I find it ironic that you never see this many minorities in specialist departments apart from in TV programmes like Line of Duty. I think it’s cynical, a marketing tactic where minorities are brought in to sell the programme.
I was a gold commander and a firearms operator. There is a scene where firearm officers are waiting at the warehouse, after a tip that the main gangsters are planning to steal from it. The team suddenly get another call and just leave – but it’s so clearly a distraction call. That would never happen in real life. You would always leave at least one officer to stay.
Dal Babu, formerly a gold commander in the Met 

I was a detective superintendent in the Met’s anti-corruption unit, a role quite similar to Ted Hastings’. But I never came across any fridging – the practice of storing dead bodies in freezers – in my career.
I advise on the script for Line of Duty. My job is to help make the series appear authentic, in terms of the language used, the acronyms, the uniforms, what the cars look like and the kind of firearms officers have – things like that. Some officers say to me: “Why is it so negative?” I’d have a different spin on that. I’d say it shows that there is a dedicated force who are there to root corruption out.

It is a drama series not a documentary. But that’s the advantage of drama: if it was entirely accurate it would be far more plodding and less dramatic.
David Zinzan, script consultant, formerly a police commander 

Line of Duty is great TV that hooks you in emotionally and intellectually. I have worked in professional standards departments and anti-corruption. With that experience, sometimes watching you can feel a bit affronted. Firearms operations and surveillance operations, the use of informants and undercover officers are so professionally managed with such a high level of accountability and scrutiny. You can’t help but think of your colleagues, who work hard in those units with great courage, and you sort of feel they are sold short.

But then you have to laugh at yourself and remind yourself that it’s fiction and entertainment and it keeps so many of us, including police, hooked.
Helen King, formerly an Assistant Commissioner at the Met 

https://amp.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2019/may/03/it-keeps-us-hooked-police-have-their-say-on-line-of-duty

Meanwhile, the Daily Mail reports that Chief Superintendent Chris Todd who is the head of Professional Standards at West Midlands Police took to Twitter to answer questions from curious TV viewers.

The Chief Superintendent is responsible for teams who vet officers and staff, investigate complaints and misconduct and the counter-corruption unit, which is equivalent to AC-12 on the television series, much like Line of Duty’s Superintendent Hastings, played by Adrian Dunbar.

Rating the show five out of 10 for accuracy, the ‘real-life Hastings’ revealed that police procedures in the show, some of which have featured in every series, bear no resemblance to reality.

Lie one: Interviewing officers have to be one rank higher 

For instance, officers being investigated for corruption do not have the right to be interviewed by someone at least one rank above them, even though this is standard in the show.

A common refrain in AC-12 interviews depicted in the show is that the officer being investigated has the right to be questioned by another who is at least one rank senior.

And in series four of the show DCI Roz Huntley’s police representative makes a point of asking that questions come from Ted Hastings, who is ranked higher than her, and not Jamie Desford.

However, Chief Superintendent Todd, West Midlands Police said they use the best investigator for the job regardless of their rank or grade.

However, if the investigation leads to misconduct proceedings then the chair of the panel must be at least one rank above the accused officer.

Lie two: Officers have to wear dress clothes for interviews 
Officers suspected of being corrupt have been seen marching into their interviews with AC-12, wearing full dress uniform.
In Sunday’s episode, PC Maneet Bindra who tricked another officer into giving her his computer passwords in season four was interviewed, she arrived in full uniform.

‘They always get dressed up in dress uniform when being interviewed by AC-12. I strongly suspect people don’t do that,’ on Twitter user wrote.

‘Yes, that is way off the mark,’ Chief Supt Todd replied. ‘The only time people wear tunics these days is at formal ceremonies, awards etc.
The TV does like to put people in tunics, especially senior officers.’

In series four, Chief Inspector Hilton – who was killed off in the final episode – was also frequently seen in full uniform.

Lie three: Undercover officers make their own rules  
In one episode, viewers saw undercover officer John Corbett gunning down bent cop Les Hargreaves, firing a shot at Steve Arnott and then breaking into the home of Ted’s wife Roisin Hastings, wearing a balaclava.

Confused by the rules, one Twitter user asked: ‘Are undercover officers ever permitted to commit serious offences (such as kidnapping, manslaughter, murder etc.) in order to ‘maintain their cover’?

Chief Superintendent Todd: ‘No, what you see here is for dramatic effect. They are police officers first and bound by the same principles of conduct.’

He also explained undercover officers ‘have to abide by the code of ethics and definitely don’t commit criminal offences as we often see happening in Line of Duty.’

He added: ‘Undercover work is a very specialist, and we can’t describe too much for risk of compromising tactics and the people involved.
‘But undercover officers (UCOs) are police officers first & still bound by the rules. The extent of behaviour in Line of Duty is exaggerated for dramatic effect.’

Lie four: Superintendents interview corrupt cops   
Another point Chief Superintendent Chris Todd cleared up on Twitter on Sunday was around interviews depicted on the hit BBC show.
Almost every AC-12 interview seen throughout the five series of the show has been conducted by Superintendent Hastings.

However, in reality they would not be conducted by such a high-ranking officer.
Chief Supt Todd: ‘If the superintendent is conducting the interview, something has gone wrong with our staffing levels.’

Lie five: Anti-corruption teams are armed  
In the dramatic series four finale, Hastings has a gun and shoots one of the balaclava-clad men who is holding a security guard hostage.
Meanwhile, series 3 ends with Kate running through the streets after corrupt cop DI Matthew ‘Dot’ Cottan, brandishing a machine gun.
Chief Superintendent Todd made a couple of mentions to the use of firearms during his question and answer session.

He said his own professional standards team is ‘not armed’ and said that the depiction of use of arms definitely takes away from the realism of the show

‘They use the proper acronyms and the proper references to regulations,’ he said.

‘But then they throw something ridiculous in like the Superintendent randomly having access to a firearm.’

Lie six: Police forces regularly investigate other forces   
Another Line of Duty fan asked Chief Superintendent Todd if police forces often get involved investigating other units.
In series four another police force was brought in to continue investigating Roz Huntley’s case, Operation Trapdoor, while she was being looked at by AC-12.

Chief Superintendent Todd said this does happen ‘occasionally’ if ‘there is independence required beyond their own Professional standards Department.

‘This might be if public confidence would only be secured through such independence, but invariably the Independent Office for Police Conduct would direct that.’

Lie seven: CCTV is the most important evidence in all police investigations  
Also discussed in the Twitter thread was the prevalence of CCTV in police investigations.
One person said: ‘TV Police shows love to portray CCTV as something of a magic wand when it comes to solving crimes. How frequently do you find recordings are actually vital to prove an individual’s innocence?’

Chief Superintendent Todd replied: ‘One of the biggest breakthroughs we have had in recent times is Body Worn Video.
‘This has negated many a mistaken or even malicious complaint. But it has also supported misconduct against officers through either public complaint or colleagues reporting inappropriate behaviour.’

He later added that CCTV ‘can be varied depending on distance, angles, lighting, quality of camera and equipment.
‘Consequently, it isn’t always as helpful as might be expected, but still it can be the crucial piece of evidence at times too. I’d rather have it than not.’

AC-12 often rely on CCTV footage to catch a corrupt officer. In series four the team spent hours tracking down video of Roz Huntley’s husband driving near Tim Ifield’s flat.

In the latest episode of series five Officer Fleming and the team relied on CCTV to know what was happening at the raid on the Eastfield depot.

Lie eight: Police officers all have cars for their own personal use  
One Line of Duty fan replied to Chief Superintendent Todd saying he was amused that in police TV the ‘default for every marked car is to drive with blue lights’ on.

The top officer replied ‘And they all have vehicles for their own personal use 24/7’, before adding that he usually takes the bus.
Both DI Fleming and DS Arnott are often seen in unmarked cars, thought to be theirs to use whenever they like, during the show.

Lie nine: Anti-corruption police are always investigating major scandals 
Several people asked how realistic the case load of AC-12 was, and if police forces’ really deal with such a high amount of ‘bent coppers’.
Chief Superintendent Todd put minds at rest and revealed that corruption isn’t as widespread as is portrayed on the show.

He said: ’Corrupt officers are very few and far between Line of Duty is the “midsummer murders” equivalent of professional standards work!’
Answering a similar question, he said: ‘It’s [corruption] very rare I’m pleased to say.

‘We had 65 allegations of misconduct per 1000 employees last year and the vast majority were minor misdemeanours. Not the sort of things portrayed in LoD in all but a small partial hand filling- not even a handful.

He later added: ‘I don’t have access to all data right now, but looking back since Christmas, we’ve seen 7 not proven cases, 7 dismissals, 2 final written warnings, 2 written warnings, 2 custodial & 1 driving ban.’

Lie 10: Professional standards teams are secretive and feared
In Line Of Duty the AC-12 office appears to be secretive and separated from the rest of the station, with only a select few officers appearing on the screen.

One person asked Chief Superintendent Todd: ‘Is your department as feared in your force as AC-12 with colleagues clamming up the moment you start investigating suspected misconduct?’

He replied: ‘No, we’re a really friendly bunch. The counter corruption unit is necessarily covert.

‘But the rest of the department is literally an open door, open plan environment and is vert welcoming, not like you see on Line Of Duty.’

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-6927407/Police-Officer-separates-fact-fiction-Line-Duty.html

What errors or anomalies did you spot or what did you see that you’re not sure about?  Drop me a line and we can discuss your thoughts

 

 

The police service in the UK is renowned for its jargon, abbreviations, acronyms and mnemonics.  Whatever name is given to these odd words, they are used as a way of improving an officer’s recall to remind them of more complex texts.  They are also a way of shortening radio or written communications, saving airtime or space.BPCD 2016 Cover on Amazon

However, such abbreviations could also assist you when formulating your story by using them as a prompt for what should be included or excluded from your text, to make sure it is realistic.  It may provide you with ideas of how to prolong or speed up your fictional investigation.

When it comes to incidents such as a house explosion or a crime scene such as a murder (or mass killings such as a car purposely driven at a crowd), the mnemonic SADCHALETS is often used by the police and could be used as a prompt when writing about such or similar incidents.

In policing situations, it refers to actions carried out by the police officers arriving first at the incident and the information needed to assist others who will be involved later on.  Each letter of the mnemonic relates to a prompting word or words as can be seen below.

  • Survey scene on approach – the responding officer shouldn’t just turn up at a given location, they should take notice of what they experience on approaching the scene.  This requires use of all of the senses, not just sight.  A particular smell may help identify the presence of petrol for instance or a shrill sound may indicate an alarm activated in the vicinity etc.  The flow of a crowd may lead to or away from the scene e.g. most people would run away from a violent offender’s presence but run towards injured or trapped victims in the case of an accident or collision occurring.
  • Assess situation on arrival – the attending officer needs to quickly and accurately determine what has happened and start to gather (even just mentally at this stage) information that will provide the answers to the following steps.
  • Disseminate following details to Control – not only will the police control room want an update from the responding officer but they will need certain information so that they can carry out the tasks either identified from the scene (e.g. and ambulance is required at the scene) or that the controller does in all instances e.g. they have to update all logs created on the force database of calls for service or incident the police are requested or required to attend.  The controller will be responsible for sending additional resources to the incident and for passing relevant information to those officers e.g. they may direct armed officers to attend the scene where a firearm is suspected of being present and they will provide the armed officers any information that will help them carry out their role.
  • Casualties (approx. number) – The sooner the number and type of casualties can be ascertained, the sooner the correct response can be requested of the other emergency services.  Any of them may have already been asked to attend the scene by a member of the public but the correct type and number of (medical/rescue) resources required may not be apparent from this call.
  • Hazards (that are present or potential) – it is vitally important that the first responding officers quickly determine what hazards are or may be present at the scene so that the lives of others can be protected.  If a tanker lorry has toppled over, the officer should be trying to ascertain what if anything it may have been carrying and what dangers the product may pose. It may have held a dangerous chemical that can quickly debilitate anyone approaching it, so an early (and at a distance) assessment is vital.
  • Access (best access routes and rendezvous points) – it may be that the first responding officer reached the scene via the best available route or only route but they must also consider how others, following them, should approach the scene taking into consideration many circumstances such as what hazards are present or possible, what type of vehicle may be following them and is the access suitable for them e.g. a parked car lined street may be problematic for a fire tender.  The officer must also consider the evidence that may be lost or preserved by using a particular route.218 Fact Cover
  • Location (exact including map reference) – not may officers are able to identify map references from a physical location but they may be able to describe it more clearly and accurately than a member of the public, who may use a colloquial name for the location that doesn’t actually feature on a map.  It is possible that a number of calls are made to the police and each one uses a different location for the incident, particularly if it occurs at or near to a multiple junction street or road.
  • Emergency services (present and/or required) – the person making the initial call to the police about the incident may not recognise that a particular emergency service may be required e.g. a car which has overturned and landed on its roof, may easily prompt the need for an ambulance for the injured occupants but having no knowledge of what the fire service can do,  they may not also be requested at the same time to help free trapped occupants from the vehicle.  The attending police officer should be better placed to determine who is and isn’t needed and to recognise those already present e.g. the difference between ambulance staff and a paramedic at the scene.
  • Type of incident (vehicles, buildings etc) – what appears to be a fire at a factory may in fact be a vehicle on fire near to or inside a building, which may require a different response from that initially thought.
  • Safety of all staff at scene – through accurate assessment of the scene, the first arriving officer will be able to identify risks that may affect themselves and others. Through correct and accurate dissemination, they can ensure the safety of others attending the scene e.g. the need to ensure that armed officers attend the scene of an incident before unarmed officers, where weapons may be used against others.

You can use the above mnemonic and examples to assist telling your story by making sure that all of the elements of SADCHALETS has been considered if not written about e.g.

Survey – How many officers do you want to attend the scene in the first instances?  Using the senses, what do you want to describe and have them experience?  What do you want them to miss, that you can bring up later in the story?

Assess – Are your officers going to be competent and manage to assess the scene effectively or not?  What factors will you use to inhibit or improve their assessment?  Prior to their arrival, were they overworked and stressed? On arrival, did they find the scene distressing or traumatic?

Disseminate – Were they able to tell the right person the right information and did the person receiving the information act in the right way or not?  Was everyone in the chain of communication competent?  Did the right people get the information they needed or not? Can you create conflict through wrongful dissemination?

Casualties – How many and what type of casualties do you want in the story?  Will they be hysterical, very subdued, badly or minimally harmed?  Who will be helping or harming them on arrival of the police?

Hazards – Are there any hazards within or around the scene of the incident?  Do you want to complicate matters further by introducing any (additional) hazards and if so what?  Will they affect just those already at the scene or those yet to reach it?  What part will the hazard play in the story and what use will it be in taking it forward?

A Writer's Guide to Senior Investigating Police Officers in the UK by [Robinson, Kevin N.]Access – How would you describe the access route?  Is everyone that needs to, able to reach the scene easily or will they be obstructed by something and if so what and how will they surmount it?  Will problems be created by someone accessing the scene in the wrong way?

Location – What location are you going to use?  Do you need to consult a map for ideas regarding access and hazards etc.?  How will you describe the location to the readers?  How will the location impact upon access and safety?

Emergency Services – Who do you want involved at the start of the incident, who do you want to omit, why and for how long?  By omitting or unnecessarily including one, can you introduce conflict into the story?

Type of Incident – What type of incident do you want to feature in the story and is it a means to get characters involved or revealed or is it a significant actor in the story in itself?  Do you know enough about such chosen incidents or do you need to research them?  Will the type of incident allow you to include the elements above?

Safety – How safe do you want the scene to be?  Do you want to increase the risks and if so, how and why?  Who do you want effected by an unsafe environment and why?  How can you ensure that the environment remains safe and who will be responsible for its safety or otherwise?

Hopefully, you will be able to use some of this article to explore, strengthen and deepen your ideas, narratives, dialogues and stories.  If so, please feel free to share the post with others and if not, please feel free to provide me with your feedback.

Don’t forget that you can acquire much research material and answers to your questions from within any of the three books shown on this page – just click on the image to purchase a copy if you haven’t already got one.

How many times have you come across fictional lead detectives or Senior Investigating Officers (SIOs) with no idea where they came from?  It’s almost as if they were born a lead detective or joined the police to automatically become one.

I’m sure that you already know that in the UK,  it isn’t possible and never has been for a person to join the police as a detective, let alone a Senior Investigating Officer.  You’ll no doubt also know that it’s not possible for any old cop to get to those dizzy heights without the right amount and type of experience or training.

Now, if you are reading the nth book in a series, it may be that the SIO’s development and career progression are discussed in earlier book in the series but in all likelihood, there will be no mention of how they got to the pinnacle of their career or what they had to do to become the leader of a complex murder investigation.

The reason that you will come across such instances and maybe even be guilty of doing something similar yourself, is probably because not many authors happen to have a close relationship with a police officer who has years of experience of policing in the UK that they can call upon to answer accurately and reliably, their troubling questions about the police, their policies and procedures.  Maybe no-one has taken the time to explain to you or the writer of the story you are recalling, just what it takes to become an SIO and lead a murder investigation in the UK.

But never fear.  Help is at hand for those of you wanting to learn about what it takes for a police officer to become an SIO and thereby make your lead detective more credible and identify areas where conflict may stem or opportunities arise from.

A Writer’s Guide to Senior Police Investigators in the UK will take you through – A Writer's Guide to Senior Investigating Police Officers in the UK by [Robinson, Kevin N.]

  • What exactly a lead investigator and Senior Investigating Officer is
  • How they become one
  • What training they undertake
  • What 38 qualities and expectations they are expected to exhibit
  • You will find 27 specific ideas of how to take your stories forward and/or create conflict in them
  • There are also hyperlinks to 79 websites or documents that you may find useful in building up your understanding of what a Senior Investigating Officer needs to know and apply during a major investigation.

Not only will this book provide you with details of how a police officer can become a Senior Investigating Officer but it can help with plotting your novel and creating twists and conflict along the way.

It’s crammed full of expert knowledge and advice that you can use to captivate your readers with compelling dialogue and narrative.

Just a couple of the five-star reviews state:

I have never felt compelled to write a review before but in this case I felt it only right to do so. I am an ex-police officer in the middle of writing my first crime-related novel and I have to say how invaluable this book has been to me. I thought I was doing well with my descriptions of procedures and command structures but I cannot believe just how much the job has changed since I left.

If I hadn’t bought a copy of this (I also have the authors other titles) I would have made myself look like a rank amateur stuck somewhere in the 90’s. This book has saved me hours upon hours of research and helped me re-think certain parts of my book and for that alone, thank you Mr Robinson.

I only wish these books were available in paperback format. I’d have a copy of them as well. Call me old fashioned, but I like a book I can flick through and mark up where necessary and as much as Kindle comes close to a book experience it doesn’t really work quite as well with this kind of book in my opinion. That said, no other format allows for hyperlinking to other valuable resources so, swings and roundabouts.

All in all, a superb, densely packed no fluff resource that is worth far, far more than what it is being offered at.

Another great book from retired UK Police Inspector, Kevin N. Robinson! Packed full of useful info – really helpful for anyone with an interest in how the UK police force works, especially with regards to those investigating crime. A gem for writers & crime fiction authors. It’s the little details that make a story authentic and it’s great to have a source which collects all the necessary info, such as what an inspector would normally carry with him (would he have a forensic suit? gloves? what weapons? etc) – particularly for those less familiar with British police (who are quite different from the armed US law enforcement officers you see more commonly on TV!)

There are two telephone numbers associated with contacting the police in the UK.  In an emergency we are told to call 999 and in non-urgent cases to use the 101 number but many face the dilemma of not really understanding what constitutes an emergency or non-emergency.

Warwickshire Police have done a nice job in providing a simple guide explaining when to use which number and to save you searching for their information, I have reproduced it below –

When should I use 999 (or the alternative emergency number 112)?

999 is for reporting emergency situations only; below is a helpful mnemonic to remember when to use it.

P Phone 999 only ifImage result for 101

O Offenders are nearby

L Life is at risk

I Injury is caused or threatened

C Crime or disorder is in progress

E Emergency situations

When should I use 101?

  • if you’ve had a minor traffic collision
  • if your property has been damaged
  • if your car has been stolen
  • if you suspect drug dealing
  • if you’ve witnessed a crime
  • if you have information about criminals in your local area
  • if you’ve seen a missing person
  • if you need crime prevention advice
  • if you want to speak to a local police officer/ your local Safer Neighbourhood Team
  • if you want to speak to the police about any other incident that doesn’t require an immediate response
  • if you want to make us aware of any policing issues in your local area

Now that you know, feel free to pass it on to your friends and family or include it in one of your stories.

You can find more information about the police by following the links in the updated and expanded British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers 2016, which you can acquire by clicking on the link above or the image below.

BPCD 2016 Cover on Amazon

You can also check out many more facts about policing in 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.

218 Fact Cover

 

In Part 1, we looked at how a police interview with a suspect in a police station should commence.  If you missed Part 1, you can review it here.

This post looks at what MUST be said next by the interviewing officer.  If they fail to say these words or others that describe the same thing in simpler terms for someone unable to understand the phraseology, anything said that may be used as evidence against the suspect, may and probably would be excluded from any subsequent court case.

YOU DO NOT HAVE TO SAY ANYTHING. BUT IT MAY HARM YOUR DEFENCE IF YOU DO NOT MENTION WHEN QUESTIONED SOMETHINGPolice interview YOU LATER RELY ON IN COURT. ANYTHING YOU DO SAY MAY BE GIVEN IN EVIDENCE.

This can be broken down as follows, to ensure the suspect understands:

• You do not have to answer my questions.

• However, should this matter go to court and you tell the court something which you could have reasonably told me during this interview, the court may be less likely to believe you and that could harm your defence.

• The tapes of this interview may be played in court, so the court will be able to hear what you have said.

Only after the introduction in Part 1 and this Caution are said to the suspect, can the interview start in earnest.  Failure to address either part may render any information, evidence or admission that subsequently comes to light in the interview, may be excluded from the prosecution case put before the court.  Therefore, if there is no corroborating evidence to the confession, the case may well be thrown out of court, if it ever gets there in the first place.

For more information you may find useful, follow the links in the updated and expanded British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers 2016, which you can acquire by clicking on the link above or the image below.

BPCD 2016 Cover on Amazon

You can also check out many more facts about policing in 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.

218 Fact Cover

If you are going to have your fictional suspect interviewed in the police station, you will need to know what should be said at the start of the interview.

The Recorded Interview Aide Memoire produced by the College of Policing advises the following:

This interview is being taped recorded and may be given in evidence if your case is brought to trial.

We are in an interview room at (police station name).Police interview

The date is (date) and the time by my watch is (time).

I am (rank and name).

The other police officer(s) present is/are (rank and name).

Please state your full name and date of birth.

Also present is (solicitor, appropriate adult, interpreter).

Do you agree that there are no other persons present? (Yes or no).  (Where appropriate adult present) You are not here to act simply as an observer. Your role here is to advise (suspect), facilitate communication and ensure that the interview is conducted fairly.

(To the suspect) Before the start of this interview – I must remind you that you are entitled to free and independent legal advice either in person or by telephone at any stage (regardless of whether or not a solicitor is present). Do you wish to speak to a legal advisor now or have one present during the interview? (If no, ask for reasons.)

At the conclusion of the interview, I will give you a notice explaining what will happen to the tapes (or recording where digital rather than taped) and how you and/or your solicitor can get access to them.

Watch out for the next post that explains what should be said after this introduction or if you can’t wait, you could always seek out  the answer  using the updated and expanded British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers 2016, which you can acquire by clicking on the link above or the image below.

BPCD 2016 Cover on Amazon

Further tips can be garnered from 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.218 Fact Cover

 

News reports can be a good source of ideas for a writer.  You don’t need to use them straight away but if you at least file them away in a “useful ideas” type of book or journal, when the old writer’s block comes along, you will have something to draw upon to bust out of that temporal paralysis.

One of those useful reports could include this one from the Echo, which tells us that the Minority Report is Here – alive and well in Essex, England, of all places.  Have a look at it and see if it can be of use to you.

The second report comes from the Blackpool Gazette and describes how dog walkers are being enlisted by the local police to help tackle crime.  Read HERE to get ideas for your own stories or to give you clues as to how you can incorporate a dog walker into your next project.

You can find more information on other issues by following the links in the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers.  You can also check out many more facts about policing in 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.

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Not everyone has the time or freedom to trawl the internet for websites that may provide information that could influence the story they are currently working on or thinking about writing in the future, so I thought I’d show you three websites that have a useful article on them (at least one).

The first comes courtesy of DR J.H Byrd who has put together the Forensic Entomology website to educate others with regard to insects found at crime scenes, particularly murders.  The information provided will prove useful to crime fiction writers worldwide, especially the Information and Life Cycles pages.

The second website I thought I’d direct you to is NursingFeed (it’s not about breast milk v formula).  Here you will find a very useful infographic on the Forensic Science Behind the Bruise Healing Process, which may help when you are trying to describe bruising in your story and how it relates to the time between infliction and description.

The third and final offering for today is from Skeleton Keys website, run by Jen J. Danna – Forensic Crime Writer who has published information about Recent Advances in Fingerprinting. Here she updates us on 4 aspects of fingerprinting that you may be able to introduce in one of your stories.

You can find more information that you may find useful by following the links in the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers.  You can also check out many more facts about policing in 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.

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What follows are links (underlined in Bold) to three items that have recently been in the media.  I bring them to your attention because they may have an impact upon your current or future Work(s) in Progress.

The first news item comes courtesy of Digital Forensic News and describes how Rhode Island State Police are using a Police Dog to Sniff Out Child Porn Hard Drives. Could your story include such a canine detective?  It may not be just like this one; you may have your own ideas that you’d like to share on this post.

The second news item relates to the analysis of DNA and a how a murderer appeared to travel in time. The Time Travel Murder.  You may want to consider something similar to this as a way of misleading your fictional police investigation or causing the wrongful arrest of an innocent person.  There are many other ideas that you may well come up with after reading the report.   You may even want to share some of them, no matter how off-the-wall they may sound.

The third and final news item (for now) comes from Scientific America.  It is similar to the earlier link but focuses on arson and asks Can We Trust Crime Forensics? Please bear in mind that it is US based but still may have some bearing on your crime of choice.  Maybe you have heard of some similar concerns that you’d like to share via this blog.   If so, please feel free to add your comments below.

If you’d like to find more interesting facts, following the links in the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers.  You can also check out many more facts about policing in 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.

218 Fact CoverBPCD Cover

 

 

You’re currently putting your story together and you’ve just described the crime scene. There’s blood present, which is believed to belong to the suspect.  You get your forensic examiners to analyse the blood sample that they think belongs to the suspect.  They tell your fictional detective that they have extracted the suspect’s DNA but that it doesn’t match anyone recorded on the DNA database so without further information, they still have no idea who the suspect may be.

However, based on the latest research findings from  the KU Leuven Forensic Biomedical Sciences Unit in Belgium, it is now possible to predict the age of a suspect or unidentified body from a sample of their blood, rather than merely extracting DNA from the blood to check against the DNA Database.

Scientists from KU Leuven have developed the test which predicts an individuals’ age on the basis of blood or teeth samples. This test may be particularly useful for the police, as it can help track down criminals or identify human remains.

The aging process is regulated by our DNA and human tissues and organs change as we grow older.

Professor Bram Bekaert from the KU Leuven Forensic Biomedical Sciences Unit explains: “The behaviour of our organs and tissues depends on which of our genes are activated. As we grow older, some genes are switched on, while others are switched off. This process is partly regulated by methylation, whereby methyl groups are added to our DNA. In specific locations, genes with high methylation levels are deactivated.”

Bekaert and his colleagues were able to predict an individuals’ age on the basis of a set of four age-associated DNA methylation markers. The methylation levels of these markers can be used for highly accurate age predictions. The researchers were able to determine an individuals’ age with a margin of error of 3.75 years for blood samples and 4.86 years for teeth.  More information can be found at http://www.kuleuven.be/english/news/2015/blood-and-teeth-predict-age

The new technique is potentially useful in the context of police investigations because it can help determine the age of criminals or unidentified bodies, which in turn can lead to identification.

Remember this little fact when putting your story together if it is being based on now and the near future.  It’s pretty useless for stories set in the past.

If you want to read more interesting facts, don’t forget to buy yourself a copy of 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police available on Amazon by clicking the title above or on the picture of the cover to the right.218 Fact Cover

Not only will you get 218 facts, you’ll also see 40 story ideas based on those facts in 36 different areas of policing.

Topics covered include but are not limited to:

  • the organisation of the police
  • crime scene attendance, assessment and investigation
  • police intelligence work
  • police interviews
  • custody suite issues
  • the role of the Senior Investigating Officer

Use 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police to make your stories realistic, to provide you with ideas you’d never thought of before and best of all, to prevent you from embarrassing yourself in front of your readers.

If you think your friends or colleagues would find the book useful, please let them know about it.

Do you want to explore serious and serial crime investigations.?  nottinghamwritersstudio.co.uk

Do you want to hear how crime scenes are processed?

Do you want to find out who does what and how leads are developed and followed?

If your work features any type of crime (committing or solving) , join me for an enlightening evening on 28th September 2015 at 1900 – 2100 for the very first Learn Crime From the Experts course run by the Nottingham Writers’ Studio, 25 Hockley, Nottingham, NG1 1FH.

This is the very first of a series of expert talks organised by the Nottingham Writers’ Studio that will help your work stand out and ensure you get the crucial details right.

Further details are available from the Nottingham Writers’ Studio

If you can’t make it, maybe buy yourself a copy 218 Fact Coverof 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police available on Amazon by clicking the title above or on the picture of the cover to the right.

Not only will you get 218 facts, you’ll also see 40 story ideas based on those facts in 36 different areas of policing.

Topics covered include but are not limited to:

  • the organisation of the police
  • crime scene attendance, assessment and investigation
  • police intelligence work
  • police interviews
  • custody suite issues
  • the role of the Senior Investigating Officer

Use 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police to make your stories realistic, to provide you with ideas you’d never thought of before and best of all, to prevent you from embarrassing yourself in front of your readers.

If you think your friends or colleagues would find the book useful, please let them know about it.

Happy and informed reading.

Not just 218 facts but also 40 ideas to take your story forward in 36 different areas of policing.

My latest book, 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police is now available on Amazon. 218 Fact Cover For the next 10 days, it will be available at a discounted price so get your very own copy by clicking the title above or on the picture of the cover to the right.

You may be wondering why you should part with less than the cost of a coffee from one of the many famous chains, to own your own copy of this unique and useful book.  Some of you, when you examine the preview on Amazon may even conclude that the book is merely a collection of posts from this blog.  Let me allay your suspicions.  It is not.  This blog has shaped the idea of the book and does cover some of this blog’s topics but in much more detail and you will the book provides 40 ideas of how you could take your stories further using the associated facts and provided web links.

These 40 story ideas based on 218 facts in 36 different areas  of policing will both educate and stimulate your creative inclinations.

Topics covered include but are not limited to:

  • the organisation of the police
  • crime scene attendance, assessment and investigation
  • police intelligence work
  • police interviews
  • custody suite issues
  • the role of the Senior Investigating Officer

If you don’t want to make mistakes with your fiction and you don’t have a police adviser in your pocket or hanging at the end of a telephone call just dying to answer the question that you feel really stupid for having to ask, buy this book.  I’ve put it together to save you the time you’d have to spend conducting the research (even if you knew where to look in the first place) or having to flatter, coerce or bribe a police officer who has sufficient experience to provide you with accurate and up to date information along with a series of ideas for taking your story forward.

Use 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police to make your stories realistic, to provide you with ideas you’d never thought of before and best of all, to prevent you from embarrassing yourself in front of your readers.

If you find the book useful, please let your friends and colleagues know about it and a positive review is always most welcome.  If however, you felt that the book failed to meet your expectations or you found a mistake or dead link, just drop me a line at “the(dot)writer(AT)hotmail.co.uk” Don’t forget to swap the dot and AT for their respective characters.

Happy and informed reading.

A coroner is an independent judicial office holder, appointed by a local council.  They usually have a legal background and will also be familiar with medical terminology.

Coroners investigate deaths that have been reported to them if it appears that:coronercrest.jpg

  • the death was violent or unnatural
  • the cause of death is unknown, or
  • the person died in prison, police custody or another type of state detention.

The purpose of the investigation is to find out, for the benefit of bereaved people and for official records, who has died, how, when and where.

If an investigation is determined necessary, a pathologist will normally carry out a post-mortem examination of the body.  Where the post-mortem identifies the cause of death, the coroner will send a form to the Registrar of Births and Deaths stating the cause of death.  The coroner must release the body as soon as possible, after which a funeral can be arranged. 

If it was not possible to find out the cause of death from the post-mortem examination or the death is found to be unnatural, the coroner has to hold an inquest. An inquest is a

fact-finding process, held in public court by the coroner in order to establish who died and how, when and where the death occurred.  The inquest will be held as soon as possible and normally within 6 months of the death if at all possible.

If the death occurred in prison or custody or if it resulted from an accident at work, there will usually be a jury at the inquest.

The coroner (or jury where there is one) comes to a conclusion at the end of the inquest.  This includes the legal ‘determination’, which states who died, where, when and how. The coroner or jury also makes ‘findings’ to allow the cause of death to be registered. When recording the cause the coroner or jury may use one of the following terms:

  • accident or misadventure
  • alcohol/drug related
  • industrial disease
  • lawful killing
  • unlawful killing
  • natural causes
  • open
  • road traffic collision
  • stillbirth
  • suicide

The coroner or jury may also make a brief ‘narrative’ conclusion setting out the facts surrounding the death in more detail and explaining the reasons for the decision.

If a person doesn’t agree with the Coroner’s conclusion, they may challenge their decision or conclusion but they should do this as soon as possible as for some challenges there is a three-month limit.

As you can see:

  1. the coroner does not attend a crime scene to collect forensic evidence,
  2. nor do they carry out a post-mortem

so don’t be caught out letting your fictional coroner do any of these things.

The latest Coroner’s statistics can be found HERE

The Coroners’ Society of England and Wale can be found HERE

Keep following this blog to hear about the imminent launch of my latest book, 218 Facts a Writer Needs to Know About the Police.

One of the key positions in any police Intelligence Cell is that of the analyst.  Their role is vital in any major investigation where they can even be a part of the Senior Investigating Officer’s management team.

The analyst can be a police officer but most forces employ civilian analysts.  Their primary role is to receive information and to convert it into intelligence through analysis.

Seven of the most common tasks they may undertake include:

  • Conducting environmental scanning of the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, Legal and Organisational (PESTELO) issues to provide an overview of the environment as it relates to the commission of the crime or is likely to affect the subsequent investigation;
  • Drawing networks of associates of both a victim and potential or actual suspect;
  • Telephone call analysis, charting specific telephones to assist with identifying associations between telephones and the patterns of calls involved;
  • Analysing local and regional crime and incident patterns to identify similar offences and/or precursor incident;
  • Analysing a series of crimes and identifying common denominators between different, possibly linked crimes;
  • Drawing charts of (possibly) significant events including a suspect/victim’s sequence of events chart and an extended sequence of events specific to a particular suspect;
  • Analysing prison intelligence; communications intelligence; intelligence from surveillance and undercover operations.

Could you use an analyst in your crime fiction?

You can find more information to help your story-writing by following this blog or using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:

BPCD Cover

Intelligence Units can play an essential role in any major investigations such as murder or serial rape.  In such instances, they are usually based within the Major Incident Room.  An Intelligence Cell or Unit will not be present in all major investigations but will be included where the investigation is complex.  The Cell may be located with the main investigation team or may be based somewhere else such as at the force headquarters.  This possibility tends to hinder the effectiveness of the Cell.

Regardless of its location, the Cell should have easy access to all the documentation that comes into the Major Incident Room. Where this is not the case, their capability becomes impaired.

Intelligence cells can be directed to undertake a wide range of tasks including the processing of information, providing information to support management decisions or influencing the direction of operations.

The Intelligence Cell should be in a position to provide or obtain for the Senior Investigating Officer, intelligence and analytical products, which will assist in the investigation and the understanding of the enquiry at hand.

Five of the most common tasks undertaken by the Intelligence Cell include:

  • Conduct research on related lines of enquiry such as previous police calls to premises or locations; the use of premises or locations; relevant prison releases; custody records for potential suspects;
  • Search of database of offences using similar MO;
  • Identification of associations between people or scenes, or prior knowledge of people/scenes;
  • Searching of significant data bases based upon parameters set by the SIO for example:
    • Police National Computer (Phoenix application) (PNC)
    • Driver Vehicle Licensing Agency
    • CATCHEM (Child Murder and Abduction Database)
    • Police National Database (PND)
  • Liaise with Force Intelligence Units and the intelligence bureaux of other forces and the National Crime Agency (NCA) etc.

Have you got your Intelligence Cell doing the things they should be doing so that the detectives can get out onto the streets to do what they do best?

You can find more information to help your story-telling by following this blog or using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:

BPCD Cover

Intelligence Units are a standard component of any Police Division, Force or Regional Team.  They also play an essential role in any major investigations such as murder or serial rape.  In such instances, they are usually based within the Major Incident Room.

Major Incident Room Intelligence Cells require suitable accommodation, IT, communications and clerical support and must be staffed with appropriately trained personnel, which may include an Intelligence Manager, an Analyst, Researchers and Field Intelligence Officers.  The exact numbers required will vary from one investigation to the other.  The more complex, the greater the overall investigative team, the more intelligence staff will be employed.

Intelligence Manager

The Intelligence Manager is likely to be an Inspector with experience of running an intelligence cell or unit at any of the three levels of complexity.  It is possible but not recommended that they may also be acting as an Informant Controller.

As the manager, they are responsible for the management and supervision of the cell, its staff and liaising directly with the SIO on intelligence and analytical matters.

Analyst

The analyst can be a police officer but most forces employ civilian analysts.  This has both advantages and disadvantages.  A police officer will be experienced in and familiar with many aspects of policing and the requirements of the law and law enforcement.  However, unlike their civilian counterpart, police officers acting as analysts can be too focussed on fact and evidence.  Civilian analysts are more comfortable formulating hypotheses (or guessing) and do not feel constrained by evidential principles.

The analyst’s primary role is to receive information and to convert it into intelligence through analysis.  Think of finding a few jigsaw pieces and coming up with what the complete picture should look like.  This description can sum up what the analyst should be doing.  However, some are not held in such high regard by some Senior Investigating Officers and some other police officers who merely see the analyst as a person that sits at a computer all day and sometimes draws charts or plots things on maps.  This perception is flawed and narrow-minded.  Watch out for a future post listing some of the functions they do perform.

Researcher

The Intelligence Cell is tasked with lots of research that can be conducted from an office rather than from the field and so the researcher is likely to be a constable or civilian employee with research experience.  They will have excellent IT skills and understanding of databases available to them.  The general idea is that researchers pull together information to be analysed by the Analyst.  They can also be tasked with putting together briefing and intelligence packages and products.

Field Intelligence Officers

Field Intelligence Officers (FIOs) are invariably Police Constable rather than detectives and their primary role is to go out and gather information that the researcher or analyst can’t from the comfort and confinement of their offices.  So the obtaining of financial records or statements from banks may be collected by an FIO where they are not available electronically to the researcher.

So, have you managed to get your fictional intelligence cell right or will you now consider using one in your stories?

You can find more information to help your story-telling by following this blog or using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:

BPCD Cover

A pathologist may only play a fleeting part in your story or they may well be the main character but if you don’t know enough about how they become one, what their relationship is to a criminal investigation or what they do to assist that investigation, you may well be getting them and your story wrong.

Read on to find what you need to know to get them right in your story.

A pathologist (sometimes referred to as a forensic pathologist) is a medically qualified doctor, registered by the General Medical Council, licensed to practice and educated at post-graduate level in histopathology (the study of the effects of disease on the body) and forensic pathology.

Those suitably qualified apply to be registered with The Home Office Pathology Delivery Board and if successful are designated as “A member of the Home Secretary’s Register of Forensic Pathologists”.

Once registered, they must work within ‘group practices’ comprising at least three forensic pathologists who jointly provide post-mortem services within a defined geographical region. The group practices must provide a forensic post-mortem service 24 hours a day and 365 day a year for their region.   The pathologists don’t work set 9 to 5 hours as the number of cases seen each day varies throughout the country, however the latest protocol agreed with the Home Office limits the working period to 120 hours in any 14 day period.

Many forensic pathologists are self-employed but some are employed, full or part-time in the National Health Service (NHS) or University hospitals.

When the police request a pathologist to attend the scene of a suspicious death, they are ‘briefed’ as to the circumstances of the case by the Senior Investigating Officer (SIO) or their representative.   Together with the SIO, crime scene investigators and forensic scientists, they agree a strategy for approaching the body, collecting trace evidence from and around it and ultimately the recovery of the body from the scene.

At the scene, the pathologist will examine the body, noting its disposition, the surroundings in which it lies and the presence of injuries that can be seen without disturbing the body or the scene. Many pathologists also supervise recovery of the body by crime scene investigators and funeral directors.

They carry out the post-mortem in an approved mortuary (usually attached to an NHS hospital).  Their examination is directed towards answering the general and specific questions about the cause of death and providing any other information that may help progress the criminal investigation e.g. where someone clearly dies of a gunshot wound to the head, the contents of the victim’s stomach may help identify the time they last ate and what it was they consumed.  Such information may help narrow down the investigative time parameters and lead to the place where they last ate.

The external examination of the body may take several hours due to its immense significance in a suspicious death post-mortem.   Every organ and body cavity is examined in detail.  Samples of organs and injuries are taken for microscopy and samples of body fluids are retained for toxicology.  Each stage of the examination is documented and photographed.  All significant findings, both positive and negative are recorded. The subsequent report is made available to the SIO, Coroner and defence lawyers.  The pathologist may then have to attend court to give evidence at the trial of the accused.

You can find more information to help your story-telling by following this blog or using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:

BPCD Cover

All Senior Investigating Officers (SIOs) want to go straight to the scene of a murder and get on with the investigation but real life differs from the fictional world in that they can’t usually do this as they have other important tasks to complete as soon as they possibly can.

One of those essential tasks is the creation of their policy log.  This is a document in which they record their decision-making rational for them to refer to later or to be scrutinised by others such as a review team or the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC).

The first 11 things they need to decide upon and record fall under the title of Investigation Set Up and are:

1. Who they are as the Senior Investigating Officer.
2. Appoint a named Deputy Senior Investigating Officer.
3. An initial summary of the incident under investigation.
4. Whether they will use a manual or HOLMES recording system.
5. Where the Incident Room(s) and or satellites are to be located.
6. The identification and definition of scene(s).
7. What their initial decisions at scene were.
8. Which areas are to be preserved/searched/fingerprinted/photographed.
9. The structure and composition of the Management team.
10. Identification of key posts and post-holders, e.g. Disclosure Officer, MIR positions.
11. Appoint an analyst/researchers.

Have your fictional SIOs been recording their Investigation Set Up policy decisions?

This is only the tip of the Policy Log iceberg.  Follow this blog for more information of other policy decisions that the SIO must record or try to find the answer using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:

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I have just come across a fantastic resource I want to share with you.  It is designed and hosted by the University of Leicester in England.  It is free to access and it allows you to act out your fantasy of being a pathologist by examining information regarding a person and you have to determine the cause of their death.  There is also a lot of anatomical and physiological information provided as well so you’ll have little excuse for getting your fictional post-mortem or autopsies wrong.

The site can be found at – Virtual Autopsy

For many more useful links for writers and researchers, don’t forget to check out your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or to buy a copy, click on the image below:

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