Posts Tagged ‘chief inspector’

You may have read about the 4 Professional Investigation Programme (PIP) levels and what constitutes Volumes and Priority crime along with who should be investigating these crime on my previous posts.  If you missed them, catch up here: 4 PIP Levels You Need to Know About and 16 Crimes That Don’t Need a Detective.

Now I’m going to describe what a Serious Crime is and who is likely to lead such an investigation so that you can get the right character investigating the right type of crime in your stories.

Serious crime falls into PIP Level 2 and is defined in section 93(4) of the Police Act 1997 as:

Conduct which

(a)  involves the use of violence, results in substantial financial gain or is conducted by a large number of persons in pursuit of a common purpose or

(b) the offence or one of the offences is an offence for which a person who has attained the age of twenty-one and has no previous convictions could reasonably be expected to be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of three years or more.

Schedule 1 to the Serious Crime Act 2007 lists a number of serious offences. Invariably these are offences which:

  • involve the use of violence, including the use of weapons and firearms
  • are sexual assaults
  • result in substantial financial gain
  • cause substantial financial loss to the victim
  • are conducted by a large number of persons in pursuit of a common purpose.

The circumstances of each case will be considered and common sense applied as whether to categorise an incident as PIP level 2 crime.

The following offences may be categorised as serious and complex investigations:

  • arson (intention to endanger life, or reckless action which could endanger life)
  • abduction
  • aggravated burglary dwelling
  • aggravated burglary non-dwelling
  • arson high value or life endangered
  • blackmail
  • drug trafficking
  • death by dangerous driving
  • fraud and associated offences (over 80 hrs investigation time)
  • kidnapping (unless in major investigation category)
  • perverting justice
  • public order (racially motivated)
  • rape
  • robbery (firearms or actual bodily harm injury)
  • child sex offences
  • wounding (sections 18/20).

In most cases, a police constable will not be the sole or lead investigator in serious or complex crimes.  It is generally the role of a Detective Constable to investigate this level of crime, supervised by a Detective Sergeant.  The more complex the crime, the more detectives assigned to the investigation.  More than 5 detectives generally means more Detective Sergeants supervising and two or more Detective Sergeants will probably mean that a Detective Inspector leads the investigative team.

So allocating a Detective Chief Inspector or Detective Superintendent to one of these investigations may be a little bit of overkill.  Watch out for my next post to find out about just what they are likely to get involved in or if you can’t wait, you can always try to find the answers using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:BPCD Cover

You may have read about the 4 Professional Investigation Programme (PIP) levels and what constitutes Volumes and Priority crime along with who should be investigating these crime and Serious and Complex crimes on my previous posts.  If you missed them, catch up here: 4 PIP Levels You Need to Know About and 16 Crimes That Don’t Need a Detective and Serious and Complex Crimes in Your Stories.

Now I’m going to describe what a Major Crime is and who is likely to lead such an investigation so that you can get the right character investigating the right type of crime in your stories.

Serious and Complex crimes are usually investigated by a Detective Constable.  The more serious or complex they become, the more likely a supervisory officer, such as a Detective Sergeant or a Detective Inspector, may take charge of the investigation.

These categories of crime can escalate to become known as Major Crimes where there are aggravating factors such as one or more of the following:

  • there is a likelihood of escalation into large-scale disorder or a critical incident e.g. activists striving to escalate a peaceful demonstration into a violent confrontation;
  • the original offence has escalated in significance to the community e.g. an assault on a child looking likely to turn into “hunt the paedophile;”
  • sensitivity regarding the individuals involved be they victims or suspects e.g. someone significant in the community;
  • there is increased media interest (especially in the above example);
  • there are aggravating factors in the offence e.g. the victim suffered unnecessary and excessive violence;
  • the victim or witness is particularly vulnerable e.g. the burglary of a very elderly person’s home, which causes them to be hospitalised through the trauma of the event;
  • the crime crosses force or national boundaries e.g. an armed robbery where the car used, was stolen in one force area, the robbery committed in a second force area and the car used dumped in a third force area;
  • the crime forms part of a series of undetected offences (probably) committed by the same offender(s);
  • the crime has been committed by an organised crime gang;
  • there are terrorist links to the crime e.g. the theft of chemicals likely to be used in the manufacture of explosives;
  • the offenders are both forensically and surveillance aware and are exploiting police vulnerabilities or
  • there are multiple offenders e.g. five people involved in one burglary or assault.

 

PIP Level 3 offences categorised as major investigations include:

  • murder
  • attempted murder
  • threat to murder
  • manslaughter
  • infanticide
  • child destruction
  • kidnapping
  • terrorism offences.

At PIP Level 3 a nationally registered Senior Investigating Officer (SIO) will be appointed to lead a major investigation.  They could be a Detective Inspector, Detective Chief Inspector or Detective Superintendent.  The decision who it should be is usually made by the head of crime (Detective Chief Superintendent), or appointed Deputy/Assistant Chief Constable in some forces.

So, if you want your character to be anything other than a Detective Inspector or above, investigating a murder, they had better have a plausible reason for doing so rather than it being left to an accredited SIO.  Unless of course, you have ideas you would like to share.

Watch out for my next post to find out about PIP Level 4 or if you can’t wait, you can always try to find the answers using your copy of the British Police and Crime Directory for Writers and Researchers or click on the picture below to buy your copy:BPCD Cover

In my earlier post I may have misled some readers as it may have implied that anyone, once they have completed the SIO (Senior Investigating Officer) Development Programme can become the lead investigator in a homicide. This couldn’t be further from the truth.

In the UK we do not allow a single detective or even a pair to investigate a homicide. There will always be a Senior Investigating Officer involved even if only from a supervisory and guidance point of view but at the end of the day it is still the SIO’s case. There will usually be a team of officers, which is useful for writers wanting to introduce and play with conflicting characters.

To get to the stage where one can even be considered to getting a place on an SIO Development Programme, that person must have been a police officer for many years. They must have passed through the ranks from Constable, Sergeant to at least Inspector but in many cases beyond that through Chief Inspector to Superintendent. This can take at least 10 years and all of their service need not be in crime investigation but probably would be.

In my old force, candidates for the programme had to pass an SIO selection process and be approved as suitable by the Head of Crime Investigation for the Force to even get onto the course let alone practice as an SIO.

During their service prior to becoming an SIO, they will have passed two promotion examinations (Constable to Sergeant then Sergeant to Inspector). After that, progression through the ranks is via interview and in some cases a series of carousels designed to test the candidates skills and knowledge.

There are various courses that the prospective SIO could or should have attended e.g. an Initial Crime Investigation Development Programme (consisting of at least 6 weeks classroom tuition), then a one/two-week Detective Inspectors’ course, followed by a three-week Management of Serious Crime course before getting onto the SIO’s Development Programme. They are then expected to maintain their accreditation by specialising in at least two subjects e.g. Forced Marriages, Financial Crime Investigation, Telecommunications Investigations etc.

Hope this clears any ambiguity up.